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In many cases, mother seals must be separated from their foraging grounds to take care of their offspring: if they can locate on ice, they can still feed and not abandon the pups, but on land, in groups called rookeries, they must limit their lactation periods so they can go without eating for a period of four or five days.Once the pups have been born, there is a postpartum estrus period, and most females are mated within a few days of the last birth.The species have evolved to their environment, and the handful of those species which are listed as threatened or endangered are those who live in the tropics where human interference is possible.The arctic and subarctic species are mostly doing well.The Caribbean monk seal was hunted to extinction, with the last record reported in 1952.
The fur seals are also found in the tropics, but their absolute abundance is low.
Elephant seals can dive up to 4,900 feet deep and stay down as long as two hours.
One study of northern elephant seals showed that their heart rates dropped from a resting rate at the water's surface of 112 beats per minute, to 20–50 beats per minute when diving.
Pinnipeds produce a variety of sounds, both in air and water.
Many of the sounds are apparently individual recognition or reproductive displays, but some have been taught to learn human phrases. Although little is known about sound production and acoustic communications as of yet, seals, sea lions, and walruses do have some voluntary control over their sound emissions, perhaps related to their ability to adapt to diving.Today, all pinnipeds are protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) in the U.