Validating holistic scoring for writing assessment online dating astrology service us
For instance, students are granted or denied acceptance to the university partially on their essay writing abilities.
And once enrolled, students regularly perform on essay assessments in required courses.
Researchers have found numerous differences in the approaches raters take to the complex task of essay rating including differences when rating native (L1) and non-native (L2) English writing.
Yet less is known about raters’ reading practices while scoring those essays.
Disciplinary background has emerged as another discriminating feature (Roberts & Cimasko, 2008). (2001) found that raters’ instructional backgrounds as native-English or ESL teachers affected the way they described their rating processes as did Eckstein et al.
(2018) in an eye-tracking study of essay rating behavior.
Researchers have established that raters judge texts differently based on their backgrounds and biases external to the texts (Ball, 1997; Pula & Huot, 1993).
Raters’ rating proficiency is one mitigating factor that illustrates this.
While these findings corroborate prior research comparing the rating of L1 and L2 writing, they promise to expand our understanding of rating processes by reflecting the teachers’ reading practices and attentional focus while rating.In his think-aloud study, Wolfe (2005) found evidence of raters’ cognitive behaviors on a variety of processing actions and content foci.Ultimately, he argued that less proficient raters tended to make and revise assessment decisions early in the rating task while more proficient raters withheld their assessments until after completing the text.Edgington (2005) found that teachers utilize numerous strategies, including “evaluating, clarifying, questioning, and inferring” (p. However, there remain questions of whether raters adopt the same reading behaviors in similar proportions to texts written by native English (L1) and non-native English (L2) writers.
The issue of reading for evaluation has gained relevance recently given that there are now more international students studying in U. higher education than ever before (Institute of International Education, 2016).Because writing assessment in educational settings is pervasive, researchers in recent years have taken an increased interest in the reading behaviors associated with essay rating (De Remer, 1998; Huot, 1993; Wolfe & Ranney; 1996).