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The second method of accessing the rings of a tree for counting is to take a core sample of the tree trunk.To take a sample, researchers use a tool called an increment borer that takes only a portion of the trunk measured from the pith to the bark of the tree.The ring directly under the bark is related to the current year, the following ones to the preceding years. As a result, a yearly tree-ring calendar gradually emerges that extends ever further into the past.This is recorded in specialized computer programs and a reference database is then generated.Much can be learned about a species of tree and its environment by discovering its age, and researchers employ several methods to date trees.The most common, most accurate way to find the age of a tree is to count the number of rings visible when their trunk is cut horizontally.Researchers can also learn about what a tree endured during a particular year by the condition of the ring they are studying.There are two possible ways to access the rings of a tree so that they can be counted. Of course, this will kill the tree, so it is not recommended as a method for tree dating unless the tree is already dead or if there is no other way of accessing the information.
The center of these circles, or the absolute core of the tree, is known as the pith.
Since each ring corresponds to roughly one year of growth, making it possible to get a highly accurate estimate of a tree’s age.