Allocentric egocentric updating spatial memories Erotischer chat seniors
The use of an allocentric representation will most often be pronounced at decisions points, and in particular, when we make judgments about the relative position of objects based on our memory of the location where they have previously been encountered.
For example, when arriving at a landmark, or viewing it from a certain distance, we could remember that our destination is positioned between this landmark and another one, sitting about 2/3 of the way from the 2nd landmark and at a 30° angle from the first one.
In one widely cited and discussed example of our spatial representations differ from cartographic maps, Stevens and Coupe (1978) asked participants to indicate which cities from a list were further west. Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. doi: 10.1038/297681a0 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Moscovitch, M., Nadel, L., Winocur, G., Gilboa, A., and Rosenbaum, R.
Although participants made many of these judgments correctly, one particular error occurred for decisions involving Reno and San Diego (Reno is further west due to the geography of the U. Participants consistently indicated that San Diego was further west, suggesting that category heuristics (that California is further west than Nevada) overode actual metric Euclidean knowledge of maps.
Although humans have a bias toward using visual information, the others are often processed as well, and they may all contribute (either in a combined fashion or independently) to extracting information about the environment (e.g., its shape and scale), the location of items, and our own location within it. doi: 10.1037/0278-73184.108.40.206 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar O’Keefe, J., and Dostrovsky, J.
While navigating, we become familiar with the environment and acquire knowledge about it, thereby extracting information from it and storing this information in our memory so that we can recall it later for a variety of purposes.
Subsequent work in humans, though, has generally not supported the idea that situations involving utilization of an allocentric representation possess the same characteristics as cartographic maps, particularly their Euclidean qualities (for a review, see: Tversky, 1992).
For example, prior heuristic knowledge (Stevens and Coupe, 1978), experience with specific egocentric viewpoints (Shelton and Mc Namara, 2001), and geometrically prominent features (Mc Namara et al., 2003; Cheng and Newcombe, 2005) influence how these representations manifest. The cognitive neuroscience of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory.
We instead suggest that a non-aggregate network process involving multiple interacting brain areas, including hippocampus and extra-hippocampal areas such as parahippocampal, retrosplenial, prefrontal, and parietal cortices, better characterizes the neural basis of spatial representation during navigation.
Based on his work primarily in rodents, Tolman linked a specific cognitive map to a certain spatial environment (analogous to a cartographic map) such that the position of an object within that environment could be derived from reference to at least two other landmarks.
This perspective argued against the idea that a rodent’s representation of the surrounding environment was based solely on self-referenced (egocentric) sequences of turns, demonstrating that the internal representation of space must be more integrated and comprehensive than previously assumed by behaviorist researchers.
Such decisions on where things are in space with respect to one another and the actual location of the individual, however, do not necessarily depend on an allocentric representation. Allocentric and egocentric updating of spatial memories.
For example, we could also remember, based on our past experience, that our goal is present 50 and 30° to the right of our current position, which would be an egocentric form of spatial judgment (Figures 1A, B; see also Wolbers and Wiener, 2014).
Since Tolman, the idea that most species, including humans, posses multiple mechanisms for navigating, including one dependent on information about the position of the self relative to the environment (egocentric) and another regarding the position of other objects position relative to each other in the environment (allocentric), is generally well accepted, with some caveats we will discuss.